Classification according to their function
They are classified into instruments for dieresis or cutting, separation, hemostasis, apprehension, synthesis instruments, drainage.
Dieresis or cutting instruments: for tissue sectioning. They can be classified into blunt umlaut and acute umlaut. To cut, separate or excise tissue and to cut materials, these instruments require careful handling when handling them to avoid accidents due to their sharp and sharp points. These include:
- a) Scalpel handles: a single instrument body, they can be long, short, straight, and curved; we find them in numbers of 3, 4, 7. For these elements, we also find scalpel blades in gauges 10,11,12,15 that are small and adapt to handles number 3 and 7, either long or short. Scalpel blades 20, 21, 22 are large to accommodate number 4 long or short handles.
- b) Scissors: cutting elements or diaresis that is used to cut, remove tissues. Among these, we have mayo scissors for cutting materials and curved or straight Metzenbaum scissors for fabrics. We also find plenty of scissors, torex scissors or hysterectomy scissors, dura mater scissors, common scissors.
- c) Electro scalpel: element at its tip an electrode which performs the function, either cutting or hemostasis; The cable is connected to the electro-cautery equipment and to make contact it needs two poles, one that is the electrode and the other that is the conductive plate that is placed on the patient, which is also connected to the equipment through its cable.
- d) Bipolar: it is an element used to perform hemostasis and cut in delicate and small tissues. It is used in neurosurgery, otorhinolaryngology, and plastic General Surgery Instruments.
- e) other elements such as gouges, shears, curettes, chisels, osteotomes, electric or manual craniotomes, electric or manual sternotomy can be considered cutting. f) Cutting, specialized: electric or manual saws, electric or manual drills.
❍ Separation instruments: they are those used to separate or retract a cavity or an organ during the surgical procedure and, in turn, are those that keep the tissues or organs out of a better view of the operative field. They can be:
- a) Manual: among them are the Sinn Miller, Carabeef, and Richardson, Deaver separators, malleable and gynecological leaflets.
- b) Self-static or fixed: they are generally articulated:
-Balfour abdominal separator-Gosse separator (O’Sullivan, O’Connor, Gynecology) -Finochias separator (Thorax and gynecology)
Used for thyroid surgeries, neurosurgery, mastectomies, arteriovenous fistulas, pacemakers:
-Delpy separator -Mastoid separator -Jetliner separator -Balkman Adson separator
This instrument is used as basic and also as specialized.
❍ Apprehension instruments: it is that instrument used to take tissues, structures, or objects.
Tweezers -Pinza Allis-judo-Allis forceps Foerster or heart -Pinza’s Ballenger-nippers Doyen-Tongs Backhaus
- b) Mobile or elastic: Certain times without keeping sustained in position. Among these, we have:
-Dissection forceps with and without long and short claws -Rush or Russian short and long forceps-Adson dissection forceps with and without claws -Bayonet forceps
❍ Hemostasis instruments: it is the instruments used to perform hemostasis in a bleeding vessel or tissue. These include:
-Straight and curved mosquito forceps -Straight and curved Kelly forceps -Straight and curved Kelly Adson forceps -Straight and curved Rochester forceps -Electro scalpel
❍ Synthetic instruments: it is the instruments used to suture tissues, face, or reestablish their continuity; it consists of a set of elements or instruments such as:
-Needle holder (specific) -May Hagar scissors-Potts scissors or hard stem -Creels forceps
-Metzenbaum Scissors-Dissection forceps with and without claws -Sutures of different gauges -Widows needles
❍ Drainage instruments: their objective is to clean the area. It is used to aspirate or suck liquids from the patient’s cavity to the outside through elements or instruments. Among these, we have the suction cannulas:
-Frazier -Yankeed -Pott -Ribbed – Andrews
These cannulas are connected to the suction or aspiration equipment through a sterile suction rubber.
Classification according to their use (basic and specialized)
❍ Basic instruments:
Used in trays or basic sets of the institution, such as: general, medium, small surgery trays.
❍ Special instruments it is those instruments considered special for a certain procedure and that we find in baskets or special equipment such as the basket or equipment for hernia, hysterectomy, laparotomy, cholecystectomy, etc.
❍ Specialized instruments:
It is that instrument used in a certain procedure; Example: laparoscopes, laparoscopy forceps, hysteroscopy, clip garter forceps.